luxation n : displacement or misalignment of a joint or organ
Joint dislocation (Latin: luxatio) occurs when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. It is often caused by a sudden impact to the joint. The ligaments always become damaged as a result of a dislocation. A subluxation is a partial dislocation.
Although it is possible for any joint to become subluxed or dislocated, the most common sites it is seen in the human body are:
Anyone experiencing a joint dislocation or subluxation should seek medical assistance as soon as possible. A dislocated joint can only be successfully 'reduced' into its normal position by a trained medical professional. Trying to reduce a joint without any training could result in making the injury substantially worse.
X-rays are usually taken to confirm a diagnosis and detect any fractures which may also have occurred at the time of dislocation.
Once a diagnosis is confirmed, the joint is usually manipulated back into position. This can be a very painful process, therefore this is typically done either in A&E under sedation or in an Operating Room under a General anaesthetic.
It is important the joint is reduced as soon as possible, as in the state of dislocation, the blood supply to the joint (or distal anatomy) may be compromised. This is especially true in the case of a dislocated ankle, due to the anatomy of the blood supply to the foot.
Shoulder injuries can also be surgically stabilized, depending on the severity, using arthroscopic surgery.
Some joints are more at risk of becoming dislocated again after an initial injury. This is due to the weakening of the muscles and ligaments which hold the joint in place. Shoulders a prime example of this. Any shoulder dislocation should be followed up with thorough physiotherapy.
There are some medical conditions by where joint dislocations are frequent and spontaneous, such as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Congenital Hip Dysplasia.
After a dislocation, injured joints are usually held in place through a splint (for straight joints like fingers and toes) or a bandage (for complex joints like shoulders). Additional to this, the joint muscles, tendons and ligaments must also be strengthened. This is usually done through a course of Physiotherapy, which will also help reduce the chances of repeated dislocations of the same joint.
luxation in Bulgarian: Изкълчване
luxation in Catalan: Luxació
luxation in German: Luxation
luxation in French: Luxation
luxation in Spanish: Luxación
luxation in Hebrew: פריקה
luxation in Italian: Lussazione
luxation in Dutch: Luxatie
luxation in Japanese: 脱臼
luxation in Portuguese: Luxação
luxation in Quechua: Q'iwi